Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder when your pancreas stops producing insulin, which helps your body turn carbs into sugar. There a two main types of diabetes and two not commonly known "subtypes". The two main types of diabetes are Type I Diabetes (T1D) and Type II Diabetes (T2D).
T1D is when the pancreas abandons ship and does not produce ANY insulin at all. People with T1D must rely on injections or a pump to get insulin and they must check their blood sugar at least six times a day (more details on treatment later on). There is no cure for Type One Diabetes. T1D can occur at any age and with any gender.
T2D is when the body produces insulin but either produces too much, to little or has difficulty getting that insulin going. People with T2D tend to be overweight, and primarily through diet or exercise can control their blood sugar levels. Some people with T2D have to take pills, shots and check their blood sugar regularly but every T2D case is different. The two not-commonly known subtypes of diabetes are Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA).
MODY occurs before the age of 25, when there is a strong family history of diabetes there is a single gene mutation. Those gene's are HNF1-Alpha, HNF1-beta, HNF4-beta, and Glucokinase (for more details on the gene mutations in MODY click here). Not everyone with MODY will need insulin, their treatment is similar to T2D and because of that most people with MODY are misdiagnosed as a T2D because MODY is so rare. MODY most commonly turns into T2D later on with the exception of Glucokinase (due to the fact that the blood sugar levels of people with MODY are only slightly higher than normal between 5.5-8mmol (99-144mg/dl. Normal blood sugar levels in a non-diabetic are between 3.8-6.6 (70-120mg/dl).
LADA is a slow processing form of T1. It is also known as T1.5D. I have LADA. This is when the body produces insulin but not enough and most people get misdiagnosed with T2D because of their age. People with LADA have high blood sugar levels but those levels aren't high enough for them to be a T1D. Often times LADA turns into T1D later in life similarly how MODY turns into T2D later on.
What are the Symptoms of Diabetes? What are treatment options for diabetics?
The symptoms and treatment of diabetes can be easily summed up in this simple infographic. (NOTE: The last part "prevention" only applies to Type 2 Diabetes, not Type 1).
What foundations can I donate too/learn more about Diabetes?
The two best foundations to learn more about diabetes are:
JDRF or Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
ADA or American Diabetes Association
So that is it for my diabetes awareness post. I hope you all found it informative. If you did, don't forget to give this post a +1 if you have a Google+ account, follow me on all my social media accounts and share it with your friends. Together we can turn Type One into Type None!
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